Prof Daniel Thomas Potts is not currently in receipt of any external grants but received funding in former employment at the Univ. That time began in the s, as American missionaries journeyed to what was then called Persia. The missionaries helped build important institutions — schools, colleges, hospitals and medical schools — in Persia, many of which still exist. So when Dr.
Prior to that, Iran had been engaged in efforts to acquire the capability to build nuclear weapons for more than two decades.
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Although it remained uncertain whether Tehran would have made the final decision to build nuclear weapons, it had developed a range of technologies, including uranium enrichment, warhead de, and delivery systems, that would give it this option in a relatively short time frame. Tehran maintains that its nuclear activities are entirely peaceful. Skip To: sss,,,,, It operates on uranium enriched to about 93 percent it is converted to run on 20 percent inwhich the United States also supplies.
Iranian nuclear projects are halted. January 19, : The U. Department of State adds Iran to its list of state sponsors of terrorism, effectively imposing sweeping sanctions on Tehran. It now runs on fuel enriched to just less than 20 percent, kilograms of which is provided by Argentina; the contract for the conversion was ed in August 5, The U. August The National Council of Resistance on Iran, the political wing of the terrorist organization Mujahideen-e Khalq Iranian Mission datingholds a press conference and declares Iran has built nuclear facilities near Natanz and Arak.
The resolution requires Iran to declare all material relevant to its uranium-enrichment program and allow IAEA inspectors to conduct environmental sampling at any location. The resolution requires Iranian Mission dating to meet its conditions by October 31 st In a deal struck between Iran and European foreign ministers, Iran agrees to suspend its uranium—enrichment activities and ratify an additional protocol requiring Iran to provide an expanded declaration of its nuclear activities and granting the IAEA broader rights of access to sites in the country.
Iran responds by refusing to suspend enrichment-related activities as it had ly pledged. According to the so-called Paris Agreement, Iran would maintain the suspension for the duration of talks among the four countries. February 27, Russia and Iran conclude a nuclear fuel supply agreement in which Russia would provide fuel for the Bushehr reactor it is constructing and Iran would return the spent nuclear fuel to Russia.
The arrangement is aimed at preventing Iran from extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons from the spent nuclear fuel.
August 8, Iran begins producing uranium hexafluoride at its Isfahan facility. September 24, The IAEA adopts a resolution finding Iran in noncompliance with its safeguards agreement by a vote of with 12 members abstaining. February 6, Iran tells the IAEA that it will stop voluntarily implementing the additional protocol and other non-legally binding inspection procedures.
April 11, Iran announces that it has enriched uranium for the first time. The uranium enriched to about 3. December 23, The UN Security Council unanimously adopts Resolutionimposing sanctions on Iran for its failure to suspend its enrichment-related activities. The NIE also said that Iran was believed to be technically capable of producing enough highly enriched uranium for a nuclear weapon between and It requires increased efforts on the part of member states to prevent Iran from acquiring sensitive nuclear or missile technology and adds 13 persons and seven entities to the UN iranian Mission dating.
June 12, Iran holds presidential elections. Incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is declared the winner amid many indications that the election was rigged. The proposal entails Iran exporting the majority of its 3. February 9, Iran begins the process of producing 20 percent enriched uranium, allegedly for the TRR. May 17, : Brazil, Iran, and Turkey issue a t declaration attempting to resuscitate the TRR fuel-swap proposal. In the declaration, Iran agrees to ship 1, kilograms of 3.
In addition to tightening proliferation-related sanctions and banning Iran from carrying out nuclear-capable ballistic missile tests, the resolution imposes an arms embargo on the transfer of major weapons systems to Iran. July 26, The EU agrees to further sanctions against Iran. September 16, The Stuxnet computer virus is first identified by a security expert as a directed attack against an Iranian nuclear-related facility, likely to be the Natanz enrichment plant.
February 16, U. June 8, Iran announces that it intends to triple the rate of 20 percent-enriched uranium production using more-advanced centrifuge des. It also says it will move production to the Fordow enrichment plant near Qom, which is still under construction. July 12, Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov unveils a proposal wherein Iran would take steps to increase cooperation with the IAEA and carry out confidence-building measures in return for a gradual easing of sanctions.
November 8, The IAEA releases a report detailing a range of activities related to nuclear weapons development in which Iran iranian Mission dating suspected to have engaged as part of a structured program prior to The report raises concerns that some weapons-related activities occurred after The findings appear consistent with the U.
December 31, As part of the fiscal year National Defense Authorization Act, Congress passes legislation that will allow the United States to sanction foreign banks if they continue to process transactions with the Central Bank of Iran. January The EU passes a decision that will ban all member countries from importing Iranian oil beginning July 1, Other provisions of the decision will prevent member countries from providing the necessary protection and indemnity insurance for tankers carrying Iranian oil.
Ashton and Jalili announce that will determine if political-level talks will continue after a technical-level meeting in July. July 24, Schmid and Bagheri meet in Istanbul to discuss the outcome of the technical level experts meeting and confirm that Ashton and Jalili will talk to determine the future of the negotiations. August 30, The IAEA reports that Iran increased the of centrifuges installed at the Fordow enrichment plant and is continuing to produce uranium enriched to 20 percent in excess of its needs for the Tehran Research Reactor.
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The meeting was not considered a formal negotiation. Netanyahu defines his red-line as Iran amassing enough uranium enriched to 20 percent approximately kilogramswhich, when further enriched, will be enough for one bomb. November 16, The IAEA reports that since August, Iran completed installation of the approximately 2, centrifuges that Fordow is deed to hold, although the enriching remains constant.
The of cascades producing 20 percent enriched uranium remains constant at Fordow. The report also notes that Iran installed more centrifuges at Natanz, and continued producing uranium enriched to 20 percent. At the end of the meetings, negotiators announce that no further meetings are scheduled and the sides remain far apart. June 3, At the quarterly meeting of the IAEA Board of Governors, Director General Yukiya Amano says that the agency's talks with Iran over clarifying the possible military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program have not made any progress.
June 14, Hassan Rouhani is elected president of Iran. A former nuclear negotiator, he asserts that Iran will maintain its nuclear program, but offers to be more transparent. Zarif and Kerry meeting for a bilateral exchange after the larger group meeting.
The parties agree to meet again on October 15 in Geneva. While President Obama says that there will be ificant obstacles to overcome, he believes a comprehensive resolution can be reached. Both sides describe the meeting as constructive and agree to meet again on October At the end of the talks, the parties release a t statement describing the meetings as "substantive and forward looking.
The proposal is understood to contain a broad framework for a comprehensive agreement and an interim confidence building measure to be instituted over the next months, but no details are given as the parties agreed to keep the negotiations confidential.
Wendy Sherman, Undersecretary iranian Mission dating State for Political Affairs, says after the talks that Iran approached the meetings "with a candor" she had not heard in her two years of negotiating with Tehran. The parties agree to meet again November in Geneva with an experts level meeting October OctoberIran meets with the IAEA to continue discussions over the agency's investigations into Iran's past nuclear activities with possible military dimensions.
According to a t statement, Iran presented a new proposal at the talks that contained "practical measures" to "strengthen cooperation and dialogue with a view to future resolution of all outstanding issues. On November 8, with the expectation that a deal is close, U. The parties fail to reach an agreement on a first-phase deal, but announce that talks will continue on November 20 in Geneva. Secretary Kerry says in Nov. Amano and Salehi a Framework for Cooperation Agreement.
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The framework lays out initial practical steps to be take by Iran iranian Mission dating three months, including allowing IAEA access to the Heavy Water Production Plant at Arak and the Gchine uranium mine, and providing the agency with information on new research reactors and nuclear power plants that Iran intends to build.
It lays out specific steps for each side in a six-month, first-phase agreement, and the broad framework to guide negotiations for a comprehensive solution. The first-phase pauses further developments in Iran's nuclear program, rolls back ificant elements like the stockpile of 20 percent enriched uranium, and requires more extensive IAEA monitoring and access to nuclear sites.
In return, Iran receives limited sanctions relief, repatriation of limited assets frozen abroad, and a commitment that no new nuclear-related sanctions will be imposed on Iran for the duration of the agreement. For more details on the agreement.
The six month period can be extended by mutual consent of both parties. The parties also begin discussing the next practical steps for Iran to take and initially plan to meet again on Jan. The meeting is later postponed at the request of Iran to Feb. The parties reach an agreement and return to their respective capitals for approval.
January 20, Implementation of the t Plan of Action begins. The report states that Iran is adhering to the terms of the agreement, including, halting enrichment of uranium to 20 percent, beginning to blend down half of the stockpile of 20 percent enriched uranium to 3. The IAEA also begins more intrusive and frequent inspections.